BCE – CE / BC – AD

BCE – CE / BC – AD
New terms I learned in my study leave in ISRAEL
From Wikipedia:
Common Era (CE) is one of the notation systems for the world’s most widely used calendar era. BCE (Before the Common Era or Before the Current Era) is the era before CE. BCE and CE are alternatives to the Dionysian BC and AD system respectively. The Dionysian era distinguishes eras using AD (anno Domini, “[the] year of [the] Lord”) and BC (“before Christ”). Since the two notation systems are numerically equivalent, “2019 CE” corresponds to “AD 2019” and “400 BCE” corresponds to “400 BC”.[. Both notations refer to the Gregorian calendar (and its predecessor, the Julian calendar). The year-numbering system used by the Gregorian calendar is used throughout the world today, and is an international standard for civil calendars.
The expression has been traced back to 1615, when it first appeared in a book by Johannes Kepler as the Latin usage annus aerae nostrae vulgaris,[5][6] and to 1635 in English as “Vulgar[b] Era”. The term “Common Era” can be found in English as early as 1708,[7] and became more widely used in the mid-19th century by Jewish religious scholars. In the later 20th century, the use of CE and BCE was popularized in academic and scientific publications as a culturally neutral term. It is also used by some authors and publishers who wish to emphasize sensitivity to non-Christians by not explicitly referencing Jesus as “Christ” and Dominus (“Lord”) through use of the abbreviation “AD”.
BCE – Before Common or Current Era – same as BC (Before Christ)
CE – Common or Current Era – same as AD (Anno Domini)
Used by authors and publishers who wish to emphasize sensitivity to non-Christians by not explicitly referencing Jesus as “Christ” and Dominus (“Lord”) through use of the abbreviation



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Good Read on Dying and Death

Sometimes as physicians, we need to embrace death with open arms

Sometimes as physicians, we need to embrace death with open arms




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The downside of sitting too long and what to do

The latest research suggests that how much time we spend sitting could be just as important as how much time we spend exercising.

A new term has been coined to describe those who exercise, but spend the majority of their days being sedentary: active couch potatoes.

While the term couch potato usually refers to a lazy person who prefers to just sit around and watch TV, an active couch potato refers to someone who is inactive for the majority of the day, but regularly makes sure to get in 30 minutes of exercise on most days.

An active couch potato is not necessarily lazy, but spend most of his or her time sitting during leisure time, work (and commuting to and from work) and while eating meals. In other words, they’re almost completely physically inactive throughout the day, with the exception of that 30 or minutes of daily exercise.

Although 30 minutes of exercise is absolutely beneficial and healthful, the rest of the day is causing tremendous health hazards. In fact, the World Health Organization (WHO) has identified physical inactivity as an independent risk factor for chronic disease development, and it is now the fourth leading cause of death worldwide.

Circa 2013, I made moves to avoid prolonged sitting while doing computer works.

I resorted to using improvised stand-up desk for my computer work.  See 2013 pictures below.

I am not using improvised stand-up desk anymore as I find it cumbersome, particulary, rearranging my computer.  (Note: there are now commercially available stand-up desks that one can consider buying.)

What I found simple and convenient to do more than the stand-up desk is to take a break after each hour of computering using a alarm clock or timer.  This is to avoid not only an eye strain from constantly looking at my laptop screen but also pain and discomfort on my knees and legs on sitting too long on a chair, particularly when it is not ergonomic.  Upon hearing the alarm, I would stand-up and do some short-duration physical activities like going to the restroom, going downstairs to take a drink, doing a 5-minute stretching-flexing exercises, etc.  Honestly, I have to confess, for the past 6 to 7 years or so up to now, I have not been totally successful in accomplishing my resolution on avoiding prolonged sitting position.  At lot of times, I have disregarded the alarm or timer especially when I am engrossed on my computer work.

I have kept on resetting and refocusing on my resolution every now and then.  I will renew my resolution again today (19jul21).   Promise!



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Physical Activity, Exercise and Sports – Differences and ROJoson’s Recommendations

What are the differences between physical activity, exercise and sports?
The terms physical activity, exercise and sports, are often used interchangeably. They are, however, different in some ways.

Physical Activity
Physical activity can be defined as any activity that involves some form of physical exertion and voluntary movements that burn calories. Such an activity causes a person’s body to work harder than normal.

Examples of physical activity range from gardening, dancing, walking the dog, shoveling snow and raking leaves.

Exercise also involves physical exertion, voluntary movements and burning calories. This form of physical activity, however, is specifically planned, structured and repetitive. It does not usually involve any kind of competition.

Examples of exercise include jogging, cross-country skiing, recreational swimming, cycling and aerobics.

Sports also involve physical activity and exercise but differ in that they also have a set of rules, or goals to train and excel in specific athletic skills. Some are individual sports such as golf and swimming. Others are played in teams — for example, soccer and
hockey. Sports are often, but not always, competitive.

When doing a physical activity, exercise or individual sport, it is usually possible to control factors such as speed, length of time, intensity and movements as needed for the protection of muscles and joints.

But with competitive team sports like basketball and contact sports like tackle football, it is difficult and often impossible to predict the actions of teammates and opponents. This generally results in more injuries and bleeds that can be very serious for any person.
Physical activity, exercise and sports provide numerous benefits for everyone, young or old.

Physical Benefits

There are many physical benefits.

Physical activity, exercise and sports help:
• develop strong bones and joints
• develop strong and flexible muscles (provides good support to the joints and reduces the risk of injury)
• keep in good physical shape (healthy weight reduces stress on joints)
• improve balance, reflex and coordination
• improve overall fitness
• promote healthy physical development

Source: https://www.hemophilia.ca/files/Chapter%2012.pdf

ROJOSON’s Thoughts, Perceptions, Opinions and Recommendations (TPORs):

  1. I like the above write-up which clearly shows the difference among physical activity, exercise and sports.
  2. Exercise and sports are special types of physical activity.
  3. To stay in shape, minimum is to have more physical activity than no physical activity at all.  Always have physical activity within the day.  The physical activity can be exercise and sports and any physical activity not classified under exercise and sports.
  4. If one goes for sports, make sure to modulate so as to prevent injuries and chronic debilitation from wear and tear.
  5. If one does not go for sports, I personally recommend doing exercise (specifically planned, structured and repetitive) on a daily basis on top of a daily regimen of non-sport / non-exercise physical activity.  The simplest and practical exercise regimen is a combination of walking and stretching -flexing.  Walking is recommended to be at least 30 minutes of continuous walking per day.  It can be and preferably, more than 30 minutes.  I personally continuously walk for one hour and 30 minutes or a 5-km distance every day starting 2019 (done this before circa 2015, resumed in 2019).  I have used the every other day frequency before. However, my experience is that I usually succumb to temptation to postpone my obligation to do my walking exercise. Now, I go for a daily frequency and have incorporated walking exercise as my daily routine, in the category of a must sleeping and eating meal routine.  Aside from the walking, stretching-flexing of body parts, joints and muscles, is recommended to be be at least 15 minutes.  It can be and preferably, more than 15 minutes.  I  personally do stretching-flexing exercise for at least 30 minutes, also on a daily basis, right after my walking exercise.
  6. A guide to follow on the duration of the exercise (say walking and stretching-flexing) is the minimum recommended duration per day and if one goes beyond the minimum, preferred, until a point of discomfort is reached.  If one has to increase the duration, one has to do it gradually.
  7. Aside from the daily exercise, I also like to recommend avoiding prolonged sitting as much as possible.  Break the anticipated long sitting duration by standing-up at least, for a few minutes at least, say 5 to 10 minutes.  Simply stand up to break the prolong sitting or do some short-duration physical activities like going to the restroom, going downstairs to take a drink, doing a 5-minute stretching-flexing exercises, etc.  Honestly, I have to confess, for the past 5 years up to now, I have not been very successful in accomplishing my resolution on avoiding prolonged sitting position. I have kept on resetting and refocusing on my resolution every now and then.  I will renew my resolution again today (19jul21).  I will have a timer or an alarm clock or watch beside me to call my attention to have a break every hour when I do computer work sitting down.



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Love the Philippines – A Korean’s Message for the Filipinos


This was written in July 18, 2008 by a Korean student for the Filipinos to love the Philippines.

This has been picked up and republished again and again in the Net with positive feedback and with constant reminder by and to Filipinos in 2010, in 2013, in 2017 and up to now (2019).

Here are samples of the posts in the Net by Filipino bloggers and journalists:


South Korean’s Message To Filipinos: ‘If you have a child, teach them how to love the Philippines’

I am reposting it in my blog because it rings true.

YES – If you have a Filipino child , teach them how to love the Philippines if you want to have a progressive Philippines in whatever aspects. (ROJoson)

Living in a progressive Philippines will facilitate  achievement of our ultimate goals in our personal intentional life plans – to stay alive, not crippled, and be productive, contented, enjoying life and be happy. (ROJoson)


18 July 2008
Written by Jaeyoun Kim

Filipinos always complain about the corruption in the Philippines. Do you really think the corruption is the problem of the Philippines? I do not think so. I strongly believe that the problem is the lack of love for the Philippines.

Let me first talk about my country, Korea. It might help you understand my point. After the Korean War, South Korea was one of the poorest countries in the world. Koreans had to start from scratch because entire country was destroyed after the Korean War, and we had no natural resources.

Koreans used to talk about the Philippines, for Filipinos were very rich in Asia. We envy Filipinos. Koreans really wanted to be well off like Filipinos. Many Koreans died of famine. My father and brother also died because of famine. Korean government was very corrupt and is still very corrupt beyond your imagination, but Korea was able to develop dramatically because Koreans really did their best for the common good with their heart burning with patriotism.

Koreans did not work just for themselves but also for their neighborhood and country. Education inspired young men with the spirit of patriotism.

Forty years ago, President Park took over the government to reform Korea. He tried to borrow money from other countries, but it was not possible to get a loan and attract a foreign investment because the economic situation of South Korea was so bad. Korea had only three factories. So, President Park sent many mine workers and nurses to Germany so that they could send money to Korea to build a factory. They had to go through horrible experience.

In 1964, President Park visited Germany to borrow money. Hundred of Koreans in Germany came to the airport to welcome him and cried there as they saw the President Park. They asked to him, “President, when can we be well off?” That was the only question everyone asked to him. President Park cried with them and promised them that Korea would be well
off if everyone works hard for Korea, and the President of Germany got the strong impression on them and lent money to Korea. So, President Park was able to build many factories in Korea . He always asked Koreans to love their country from their heart.

Many Korean scientists and engineers in the USA came back to Korea to help developing country because they wanted their country to be well off. Though they received very small salary, they did their best for Korea. They always hoped that their children would live in well off country.

My parents always brought me to the places where poor and physically handicapped people live. They wanted me to understand their life and help them. I also worked for Catholic Church when I was in the army. The only thing I learned from Catholic Church was that we have to love our neighborhood. And, I have loved my neighborhood. Have you cried for the Philippines? I have cried for my country several times. I also cried for the Philippines because of so many poor people.

I have been to the New Bilibid prison. What made me sad in the prison were the prisoners who do not have any love for their country. They go to mass and work for Church. They pray everyday.

However, they do not love the Philippines. I talked to two prisoners at the maximum-security compound, and both of them said that they would leave the Philippines right after they are released from the prison. They said that they would start a new life in other countries and never come back to the Philippines.

Many Koreans have a great love for Korea so that we were able to share our wealth with our neighborhood. The owners of factory and company were distributed their profit to their employees fairly so that employees could buy what they needed and saved money for the future and their children.

When I was in Korea, I had a very strong faith and wanted to be a priest. However, when I came to the Philippines, I completely lost my faith. I was very confused when I saw many unbelievable situations in the Philippines. Street kids always make me sad, and I see them everyday. The Philippines is the only Catholic country in Asia , but there are too many poor people here. People go to church every Sunday to pray, but nothing has been changed.

My parents came to the Philippines last week and saw this situation. They told me that Korea was much poorer than the present Philippines when they were young. They are so sorry that there are so many beggars and street kids. When we went to Pagsanjan, I forced my parents to take a boat because it would fun. However, they were not happy after taking a boat. They said that they would not take the boat again because they were sympathized the boatmen, for the boatmen were very poor and had a small frame. Most of people just took a boat and enjoyed it. But, my parents did not enjoy it because of love for them.

My mother who has been working for Catholic Church since I was very young told me that if we just go to mass without changing ourselves, we are not Catholic indeed. Faith should come with action. She added that I have to love Filipinos and do good things for them because all of us are same and have received a great love from God. I want Filipinos to love their neighborhood and country as much as they love God so that the Philippines will be well off.

I am sure that love is the keyword, which Filipinos should remember. We cannot change the sinful structure at once. It should start from person. Love must start in everybody, in a small scale and have to grow. A lot of things happen if we open up to love. Let’s put away our prejudices and look at our worries with our new eyes.

I discover that every person is worthy to be loved. Trust in love, because it makes changes possible. Love changes you and me. It changes people, contexts and relationships. It changes the world. Please love your neighborhood and country.

Jesus Christ said that whatever we do to others we do to Him. In the Philippines , there is God for people who are abused and abandoned. There is God who is crying for love. If you have a child, teach them how to love the Philippines. Teach them why they have to love their neighborhood and country. You already know that God also will be very happy if you love others.

That’s all I really want to ask you Filipinos.


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Difference and similarity between apostles and disciples


What is the difference between apostles and disciples?

In Christianity the words “apostle” and “disciple” are often interchanged, but in truth refer to different realities.

“12 apostles” is often quoted in the Bible – Mt: 10:1-7 (in this Bible passage, disciples and apostles are written – 12 disciples and 12 apostles).

“72 disciples” is also quoted in the Bible  – Luke 10:1-12.

To differentiate the two:

An apostle is one who is “sent” by God to preach the Gospel to the nations.   Initially, these are the 12 apostles cited in the Bible and selected by Jesus.  Eventually, after Jesus died, it includes other people like St. Paul and St. Boniface, who while not directly ordered by Jesus, followed divine inspiration to spread Christianity.

The twelve apostles selected by Jesus are the following: Simon Peter, James the son Zebedee, John the brother James, Andrew, Philip, Bartholomew, Matthew, Thomas, James the son of Alphaeus, Thaddaeus, Simon the Cananaean, and Judas Iscariot.

A disciple, on the other hand, is one who is a student or pupil of Jesus Christ or Christianity.  He is a person who is constantly learning what it means to be a Christian.

Source: https://aleteia.org/2018/01/18/whats-the-difference-between-an-apostle-and-a-disciple/

We can say that all apostles are disciples but not all disciples are apostles.

ROJoson’s Notes:

If I were to refer to people who closely follow and apply what I am teaching in medicine and how to live life in the context of health, I will use the word “disciples.”

Or mentees or proteges.

Mentee is a person who is advised, trained, or counseled by a mentor.

Protege is a person who is guided and supported by an older and more experienced or influential person.





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Exercise and Weight Control

“…..exercise, while great for health, isn’t actually all that important for weight loss”


 “It’s generally accepted that for most people, the basal metabolic rate accounts for 60 to 80 percent of total energy expenditure,” said Kravitz. Digesting food accounts for about 10 percent.

That leaves only 10 to 30 percent for physical activity, of which exercise is only a subset. (Remember, physical activity includes all movement, including walking around, fidgeting, et cetera.)

We need to reframe how we think about exercise

Obesity doctor Yoni Freedhoff has called for a rebranding of how we think of exercise. Exercise has staggering benefits — it just may not help much in the quest for weight loss:

By preventing cancers, improving blood pressure, cholesterol and sugar, bolstering sleep, attention, energy and mood, and doing so much more, exercise has indisputably proven itself to be the world’s best drug – better than any pharmaceutical product any physician could ever prescribe. Sadly though, exercise is not a weight loss drug, and so long as we continue to push exercise primarily (and sadly sometimes exclusively) in the name of preventing or treating adult or childhood obesity, we’ll also continue to short-change the public about the genuinely incredible health benefits of exercise, and simultaneously misinform them about the realities of long term weight management.

The evidence is now clear: Exercise is excellent for health; it’s just not that important for weight loss. So don’t expect to lose a lot of weight by ramping up physical activity alone.

As a society, we also need to stop treating a lack of exercise and diet as equally responsible for the obesity problem in this country. Public-health obesity policies should prioritize fighting the over-consumption of low-quality food and improving the food environment.


It’s time to break the link between exercise and weight loss. Exercise has many health benefits totally independent of weight loss, which is great because exercise typically doesn’t cause any significant amount of weight loss in the first place.

Exercise isn’t “pointless” if you’re not losing weight from it, and the idea that thin people “don’t need to exercise” is plain ridiculous: unless those thin people are exempt from the normal rules of human biology, they can benefit from exercise just like everyone else. If you want to lose weight, the kitchen is the place to start. But if you want to improve your health, consider a trip to the gym – to do something that you enjoy and can keep up in the long run.

Even if exercise causes absolutely no weight loss at all, it still has health benefits – including a lot of the health benefits that people try to get from losing weight.



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